The Application of Plinth Carving Style in Ancient Construction Works of Huizhou


Abstract. The plinth exists in ancient buildings housing, which has become an excellent site for skillful craftsmen display their skills, and also reflect the pursuit of the perfect master ideal carrier. It is an important part of the ancient building housing construction, traditional patriarchal values constitutes a pattern of Huizhou architecture design constraints, but patriarchal concept, but also has a strong sense of cohesion and binding, reflects the attitude towards life and aesthetic appeal of the Settler showed pursuit and creating an ideal living environment, ancient labor people are brilliantly creative and industrious cumulative left an extremely valuable cultural heritage. Its research and analysis will be conducive to the understanding of the social conditions of Huizhou in the Ming and Qing dynasties. There are visits to the spirit of traditional Chinese art style is conducive to the prosperity of the Chinese nation and regional culture, contribute to the achievement of mankind has been the pursuit of nature, man and man, man's own overall harmonious ideals; advocate of all things as a whole, and advocated the protection of nature, is China's fine cultural traditions.
  Key words: Plinth, Ornamentation, Moral, Aesthetic Taste, Confucianism, Social Spirit, Tradition
  Ancient land of the Ming and Qing houses, our ancestors bequeathed to us a valuable asset. Scattered in the vast land of China, like many bright pearls; It is the ideal home of the ancient Huizhou people, today the spirit of our boarding places; residential villages plain black and gray color, white walls and gray tiles, black wall stack, the five stacked wharf wall, as well as arch, ancestral halls, temples, bridges, pagodas, pavilions, configured to appropriately echo the undulating hills, tree jungle, lining emerged in the blue sky, the lies by the breeze, turns out to be windows and smell the bird sound, go see Tsui Ping Xiushan Lishui township. The rhythm of cornices, doors and windows, stone carving, wood carving brick beautifully decorated, well-preserved ancient buildings hauntingly, brings us back to that time dusty years.
  Stroll in the Bluestone paved roadway in the Middle Kingdom, in the courtyard of the old house or around the village, we can often see a lot of abandoned in the stone plinth; some shape huge base, is placed in the hall, courtyard placed flowers, bonsai and other ornamental items. Plinth, also known as the stone plinth sub, it has a long history that the records used in the Shang Dynasty. Traditional building of brick and wood, are relying on the pillars to support the wooden beams and roof, so have a wall collapsed house does not collapse characteristics. The plinth of the column body weight bearing dispersed in a larger area of the ground, and the stone plinth can be moisture-proof, has a protective effect on wooden pillars.   Plinth strategic location, compelling, so often becomes the perfect site for skillful craftsmen display their skills, but also reflect the master's ideal pursuit of the perfect carrier is an important part of the ancient buildings housing constructed to support the huge wooden structure of the entire housing weight, is generally rocky. Most of modeling, the exquisite ornamentation, age; major relief, openwork dimensional carving techniques, local materials, wood art facilities for the principle, Bluestone, black tea, stone and the tea garden stone, are the emblem of ground used stone, hard stone, timber stress. Emblem ground stone all over the territory of Siyu, North the Yixian County source Yixian Bluestone ": East Shexian production" Phoenix Stone "; south Hugh Wucheng at the junction of the mountain precious inkstone material stone; West Xiuning County West Hall production white linen gravel. Addition of Chun'an County plainer Caine long "tea garden stone, solid depend on the Xin'anjiang shipping convenience also is the emblem of the land standing stone.
  Vernacular Architecture of Ancient gregarious constantly extending, mapping the mentality of a Huishang common aesthetic utilitarian purpose and totemic beliefs. However, due to the traditional Confucian Wisdom and other concepts people as the code of conduct in the daily life, regardless of any one person in the clan regardless of their financial resources and more abundant, statues and more prominent, returned to the village, must abide by the family rules. Traditional patriarchal concept constitutes a pattern of Huizhou architecture design constraints, but patriarchal concept, but also has a strong sense of cohesion and binding.
  The Plinth Shaped the Evolution of the System Development and Cultural Connotations
  With The Business Prosperity periods have a traditional sense of returning to their roots, successful people, the majority of people want to homecoming, the family name, more and more people to return home to build a house on the formation of scale, materials, indoor and outdoor decoration luxury degree comparisons atmosphere, this period carved a unique style of artistic ideas and level from the type of character town toward the type of life and culture type, and the type of plinth carved a variety of forms of development. These plinths complement and other housing decoration and reflects the spiritual aspirations and aesthetic sentiment of the building owner. Grew up in the material, spiritual, suppliers rich royal palace, many of the social and psychological factors common constraints Qing Dynasty architecture carving art presented as an unprecedented mobility and openness, carving source fan poor highly by covering the facade decoration of the Qing Dynasty architecture art culture, social embodying the spirit of social ethics and popular culture.   The carving overall design intent of Ancient residential Plinth conformal theory as the dominant ideology in the overall form a thorough, layout and aesthetic philosophy "non-spectacular no JONNESWAY" is the theme of the architectural concept, focusing on Shigetomi colorful entertainment and quiet block, leading spirit of the tastes of the public culture, design real virtual affectionate intention, scenes and emotions with Aesthetic fully reflect the Huishang the literati of elegant gas, Confucianism and Taoism Buddha Wonderland, Huizhou This unique mode of thinking, emotions and ideals lies in the formation of a relatively stable residential body differences common cut combination of unity with the surrounding environment, so we felt a distinguished stately constant sense. Also reflects the aesthetic of Huishang a utilitarian purpose and faith.
  Plinth from the original town symbol of sexual evolved into a symbolic concept, this process has experienced hundreds of years, the highest state of the art of architecture is the true, natural, not the pursuit of surface rendering, only the pursuit of the environment and the human spirit hint as gas, no matter is a sculpture in the round, high relief, pierced carving, flat-line engraved and ideals symbolic pattern carved, as if from a unified planning and design. Those homes owned of these exquisite Plinth stones-carving art has allowed us to sigh.
  Features and Aesthetic of the Plinth Shaped System
  Plinth shape drum, melon-shaped, gourd-shaped bottle-shaped lotus-shaped ancient mirror shaped, raspberry-shaped, cylindrical, square column, etc. Plinth of different shapes, have different meanings. Melon shaped and evolved by melon shaped drum-shaped, bottle-shaped, and derived from the bottle-shaped gourd-shaped, was widely used in the building earlier and reproductive worship great relationship. Melons multi-seed breed rapidly and have become widely accepted. The Gourd even is regarded as a sign of masculinity. The folk legend, after the flood, hidden in a melon inside for the survival of the brother and sister forced to marry, reproduce, so gourd worshiped as ancestral spirits. Later, people turn the gourd regarded as the incarnation of "Fluke" and a symbol of longevity, the melon-shaped drum, bottle-shaped, gourd-shaped stone plinth gradually stylized eventually become accepted by the people of all nationalities auspicious graphics.
  Bottle-shaped mirror shaped stone plinth, whichever homonym, respectively, meaning "flat" and "quiet". Enjoy a quiet life, is one of the goals of the people to pursue. Today, many buildings still placed a porcelain vase and mirror, the intention at a glance. On the bottom of the circle, on behalf of heaven and earth, the meaning of indomitable spirit, Heaven and. six prism stone plinths, and its plane projection seemed Turtle, meaning longevity. Eight prism adopt its homonym developed, meaning that Minyan "If we want to send to stray from eight." Gourd-shaped substantially decreased and pomegranate-shaped. Hold the drum, which is to take "Fluke" homophobic gourd when he took "more children" good luck, have a profound folk cultural connotation.   Soe column and raspberry basis is another feature of the Ming Dynasty architecture. Some houses can be seen in the house very conspicuous erect a root thick wooden pillars, these pillars are not up and down as thick, but starting from the middle of the upper and lower ends gradually closing small fusiform, so called shuttle column. Shuttle column by its lower part of the bedrock of support, this is the plinth. If you pay close attention, will be able to find this building Ming ranking plinth exquisite workmanship, in various forms, that is, round, octagonal, there are changes in the shape of round or octagonal based on, but the basic shape like the pot bottom side up, also known as raspberry basis. Remained at the bottom of the square, four sides perpendicular to close the four corners of the square hewn concave arc, while the four corners beveled not cut into equilateral octagon for convex line received as a circular line full of change, tactics concise, quaint and beautiful body. There between the shuttle column and plinth, adding a wood, is very unique. According to construction experts, this design has a shockproof function and protects the role of the shuttle column.
  According to some experts, the major construction, not necessarily with the complex shape of the plinth, such as the imperial palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties Plinth touches advocating ancient mirror concise style, colorful and temple Plinth instead. Retained some Toudiao stone plinth in the hospital, quite vivid. Rough stone to build the ancient stone carving skills in today's society seems to be increasingly faced with inheritance problems, because of the extensive use of reinforced concrete, the civil structure of the house is less, these stone carvings member also certain occasions adapt. Which often has become a traditional craft heritage of the availability of the deciding factors
  Plinth Carved Decoration Plot the Contents of the Performance
  The plinth decorated plot mainly from local life and customs, religious beliefs, psychological hobby and aesthetic ideas with the symbolic significance of the Chi Cheung Hannaford. Ancient has a long history, profound culture old Sustaining Confucian, Taoist and Buddhist thought, the theme of the plinth stone carving works, both from the artistic aesthetic taste, or from the teaching features, necessarily involves the Confucian ethical philosophy. Plinth close connection with the decorative and folk culture, showing the unique characteristics of folk, reflect the specific historical circumstances, and embodies the spiritual needs of the Ancient People.   From the content of the plinth stone decorated performance, can be divided into the figurative class, abstract class, language and imagery class performance. A variety of categories, a variety of decorative merged to form the new patterns, its purpose is to create a lively and rich scene composition. Development The late Qing operas, folk diagram, such as obesity, swim spring fling Figure, a gentleman farmer, and interpret blueprints, three story map on the expression of the content of the plot, mainly by the geometric patterns of the Ming dynasty. We can see the different performance implication of different aspects of the theme in the stone, deep into Confucian life, business, and official philosophy.
  Figurative form of reproduction physical origin. Figurative classy patterns are mostly drawn to nature in its natural form, directly to the life of plants and animals and artifacts, such as physical alone or in combination used in the residential building decoration. Can be used to express emotions through this kind of symbol of blending Italian and extended meaning. Crane, lion, bats, magpies, deer and other patterns as decoration often has its symbolic significance. It is generally by means of these plants and animals in nature, according to their aesthetic way to meet their own strong spiritual needs, and eventually reach the safety of everyone hope, happiness, freedom, peace purpose.
  The abstract forms transcend the laws of nature. Imagine constitute or by the natural thing to copy, and by the simplification of the process and make it abstract. In shape, it is a combination of the image, refined features and create transcend the human form of the natural form. Abstract class stone carving patterns of simple shapes, innovative, not like the image, abstract geometry, or approximate a shape of geometric graphics or art processing things in life, abstract into a pattern in the form things intent is the new form of the pattern to undertake or transformation, which is a common expression. Such as the image of the various plants are often abstract pattern used in architectural decoration, these abstract patterns through the art of re-creation process, the more intense aesthetic significance. As plinth geometric pattern on the non-realistic abstract class extended to points, lines, basic elements of the surface, the idea of creating an Aesthetic Principles typical patterns. Like pomegranate, peony, the LOH grasses, lotus, moire, water waves, Baoshan, etc. appear in the plinth on the influence of Buddhist culture, and of course, the lotus is the most common. Lotus form of a pattern of lotus petals, lotus open for four weeks, the formation of small petals a week, and is suitable for use on a circular plinth stone, so there is tiled flooring lotus, up and down overlapping elevation overlying Lotus petals on a variety of styles, plus carving PO loaded lotus.   Image morphology reflects the subjective intention. The imagery stone carving patterns as one or several forms of combination to a screen, sometimes figurative and abstract grouped together to form the image of a rich connotation, also by means of text straight above the legendary allusions enlightenment, reflecting the ethnic folk psychology, has a profound symbolic significance.
  The plinth carved directly using words to express thoughts and feelings. Since ancient times, regardless of the supreme imperial phase, or the identity of the humble poor people, "life" has been a primary goal to pursue health and longevity is the highest state of spiritual yearning people. As "a combination of life" and the bat, the middle is a seal character "show" next to a lot of clouds and five bats, called Wufu Shou, a blessing sons and daughters, two Fook sub Sun Xiaojing, Sanfu not patient at home, four beatitudes dungeon no sinner, Wufu old to no external debt.
  There are a large number of the main characters in the application of decorative themes. The main characters, the plinth decorative plain, in addition to the decorative effect, also has a certain sense of enlightenment, such as the much later in life, the "Beizitou" is a symbol of the concept of hope children and grandchildren thrive reproductive expression. Many sons "the traditional concept of the Chinese nation. The unicorn has ever been the legendary unicorn sent the boy grow up must be the virtues of the minister, it could help the country reflect the customs of the people. Some engraved plowing a pass down the tradition, some engraved with a demand division Figure. The purpose is to remind children and grandchildren do not forget the respect for teachers such carvings reflect the local social life and civil family fun and simple desire of the people of all walks of life also embodies emblem supplier Kang also main farming, agricultural development and operation of such a look of the commercial content of this imagery of the a multipart form of decorative further interpretation of its meaning, a single pattern is an independent content.
  These themes are used as a decorative lies not only in the formal beauty of their external image, but also that they are able to express a certain ideological connotations, more importantly, it reflects the Ming and Qing Dynasties of Ancient diversified, integrated, regional characteristics.
  Constitute Characteristics of Plinth Carved Patterns   The plinth carved patterns from view constitute a form of separate patterns, suitable patterns; the continuous patterns as well as independent amplitude integrated pattern-based morphology and structural integrity and rigor strong.
  Separate patterns. Symmetric. Symmetric forms of composition can be divided into upper and lower symmetrical, symmetrical, symmetric multi-faceted, and it is characterized by the axis or center of its vertical and horizontal arrangement on the basis of the same shape, the same amount of floral patterns, in order to obtain a smooth, dignified and generous, The rich decorative strong effect.
  Balanced. Arbitrary composition, balanced by the whole pattern of the center of gravity of the premise is somewhat similar to the composition in the form of broken branches in the Chinese painting flowers "and does not seek absolute symmetry gives a dynamic, thereby creating a flexible, vivid and beautiful, rhythmic patterns to give people a stable and harmonious feeling.
  Suitable patterns. Continuous patterns. Continuous patterns generally used for the stone decorative theme was around. The zigzag pattern is mainly used as edging or shading, wealthy neat, system rich effect.
  Alone spoke pattern. The plinth form of points separates the two sides continual and the Quartet continuous and scatter-style. Banana Leaf pattern in the form of wishful, interlocking, cloud head, seawater, and more decorative side foot site in artifacts.
  The plinth Unlike wood carving, furniture, porcelain, people today can also add color for home decoration or at home and admire the stone plinth in modern life for the villagers of no practical significance, individual heavy and difficult handling, placing, and not for the attention, was abandoned at the side. Laying in the room and, the courtyards weeds in the plinth, are still exposed to the invasion of wind and rain, the passing years quietly solidified in this Plinth who former glory, as if to tell us. Ancient Ming and Qing builds the plinth sculptures tens of thousands, the folk craftsmen generations dismally poor year after year, only dedication to the world; brilliant creation of the working people of ancient and industrious cumulative left an extremely valuable cultural heritage. Ancient Ming and Qing architectural indoor environment artistic language embodies the pursuit of different periods of construction, its research and analysis, will be conducive to the understanding of the social conditions of Huizhou in the Ming and Qing dynasties, is conducive to visiting the mental outlook of the Chinese traditional art, conducive to the prosperity and development of the Chinese nation and regional culture. Contribute to the achievement of mankind has been the pursuit of nature, man and man, man's own overall harmonious ideals; advocate of all things as a whole, and to advocate for the protection of natural and fine cultural traditions of China.   References
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